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Temporary and Permanent Hardness of Water

Temporary hardness is due to carbonate & bicarbonate anions present in water and also called carbonate hardness.
The temporary hardness is removed:
  1. By boiling
  2. By adding lime water (Ca(OH)2)
For example; CaCO3, MgCO3, Ca(HCO3)2, Mg(HCO3)2
Mainly permanent hardness is due to chloride & sulfate anions present in water and also called non-carbonate hardness
The Permanent Hardness can be removed:
  1. By adding soda (Na2CO3)
  2. By Permutit process (Sodium Zeolite)
For Example; CaCl2, MgCl2, CaSO4, MgSO4

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