The Main Threats to Nepal's Biodiversity

The main threats to Nepal's biodiversity are (Nepal Biodiversity Strategy, 2002):
  • Encroachment/fragmentation and degradation of habitat
  • Poaching and illegal trade of key wild animals and plants
  • Unsustainable use of natural resources
  • The spread of invasive alien plant species
  • Human-wildlife conflict
  • Climate change (direct impacts)
  • Overgrazing by livestock
  • Fire, flood, and landslide
  • Pollution of aquatic environments and changes in river flows'
  • Large infrastructure development
While the above mentioned are direct threats, there is the number of indirect drivers and root causes that interact in complex ways to cause human-induced changes in biodiversity.
Indirect drivers including
  • Inequitable access to forest benefits, 
  • Lack of economic alternatives, 
  • Population growth,
  • Cultural and religious factors that influence local communities' behavior in ways that impact biodiversity, and 
  • Climate change is having increasing impacts on people and nature, in some cases exacerbating indirect drivers of biodiversity loss.

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