Important Facts about Nobel Prize

Alfred Nobel (1833-1896) was born in Stockholm, Sweden, on October 21, 1833. famous scientist (well known for dynamite invention), inventor, businessman and founder of the Nobel Prizes.

In 1901, the first Nobel Prizes (6 topics) in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine and Literature were first awarded in Stockholm, Sweden (the King of Sweden hands) and the Peace Prize in Kristiania (now Oslo City Hall), Norway

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel has been awarded 50 times (all years) to 81 Laureates between 1969 and 2018. 

Facts of Nobel

24 Organizations, 27 times

Multiple 

  • ICRC: Peace Prize Peace 1917, 1944, 1963. (Henry Dunant: 1st peace 1901) 
  • UNHCR: Peace 1954, 1981
  • Linus Pauling: Chemistry 1954, Peace Prize 1962 (Awarded 2 unshared Nobel Prizes) 
  • J. Bardeen: Physics 1956, Physics 1972 
  • M. Curie: Physics 1903, Chemistry 1911 
  • F. Sanger: Chemistry 1958, Chemistry 1980

Under Arrest: 

  • German pacifist and journalist Carl von Ossietzky 
  • Burmese politician Aung San Suu Kyi 
  • Chinese human rights activist Liu Xiaobo 

Forced decline:

  • German Richard Kuhn, Adolf Butenandt and Gerhard Domagk (by Hitler) 
  • Boris Pasternak by Soviet Union

Posthumous (2):

(From 1974, can’t be awarded posthumously)
  •  Dag Hammarskjöld: Peace Prize 1961 and 
  • Erik Axel Karlfeldt Literature 1931 

Married Couple (5):

  • Marie Curie & Pierre Curie 
  • Irène Joliot-Curie & Frédéric Joliot 
  • Gerty Cori & Carl Cori 
  • May-Britt Moser & Edvard I. Moser 
  • Alva Myrdal & Gunnar Myrdal 

Nobel Prize Family 

  • M. Curie’s family: Marie Curie & Pierre Curie, Irène Joliot-Curie & Frédéric Joliot 

Father and Son (6) 

  • William Bragg & Lawrence Bragg 
  • Niels Bohr & Aage N. Bohr 
  • Hans von Euler-Chelpin & Ulf von Euler 
  • Arthur Kornberg & Roger D. Kornberg 
  • Manne Siegbahn & Kai M. Siegbahn 
  • J. J. Thomson & George Paget Thomson 

Brothers: 

  • Jan Tinbergen & Nikolaas Tinbergen 

Nobel Prize Amount 

  • Swedish kronor (SEK) 9.0 million 

Youngest 

  • Malala Yousafzai 17 years, Peace 2014 
  • Lawrence Bragg 25 years, Physics 1915 
  • Nadia Murad 25 years, Peace 2018 
  • Werner Heisenberg 31 years, Physics 1932 
  • Tsung-Dao Lee 31 years, Physics 1957 

 Oldest 

  • Arthur Ashkin 96 years, Physics 2018 
  • Leonid Hurwicz 90 years, Economic Sciences 2007 
  • Lloyd Shapley 89 years, Economic Sciences 2012 
  • Raymond Davis Jr. 88 years, Physics 2002 
  • Doris Lessing 88 years, Literature 2007 

Important Organizations 

  • UNICEF: Peace 1965 
  • ILO: Peace 1969 
  • Amnesty International: Peace 1977 
  • United Nations Peacekeeping Forces: Peace 1988 
  • International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL): Peace 1997 
  • United Nations (U.N.): Peace 2001 
  • International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA): Peace 2005 
  • Grameen Bank (Bangladesh): peace 2006 
  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): Peace 2007 
  • EU: Peace 2012 
  • Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW): peace 2013 
  • International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN): 2017 

Nobel Prize 2018 

  • Physics: Arthur Ashkin “for groundbreaking inventions in the field of laser physics” with one half & “for the optical tweezers and their application to biological systems” and the other half jointly to Gérard Mourou and Donna Strickland “for their method of generating high-intensity, ultra-short optical pulses”. 
  • Chemistry: one half to Frances H. Arnold "for the directed evolution of enzymes" and the other half jointly to George P. Smith and Sir Gregory P. Winter "for the phage display of peptides and antibodies." 
  • Physiology or Medicine: James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo "for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation." 
  • Peace: Denis Mukwege (devoted his life to defending these victims) & Nadia Murad (Iraqi Yazidi Human Rights activist, the witness who tells of the abuses perpetrated against herself and others) 
  • Economics: William D. Nordhaus "for integrating climate change into long-run macroeconomic analysis" and Paul M. Romer "for integrating technological innovations into long-run macroeconomic analysis."

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