Tuesday, February 27, 2018

New order of precedence in Nepal

As the country embraces federalism, the government has finalized a new order of precedence that places the President on top of the protocol.

Absence of the state protocol had created difficulties for government officials in conducting state ceremonies and public functions. An earlier protocol became redundant after federal structures were created in line with the new constitution adopted in 2015.
The order of precedence was revised by adjusting some key positions, mainly with the provincial administrations in place. The President is at the top of protocol, followed by the Vice President and the prime minister. The chief justice, the Speaker of House of Representatives and the National Assembly chairperson are placed in the fourth and fifth positions while the former President is ranked sixth. 
The provincial chiefs, chief ministers of provinces and ministers at the federal government have been ranked seventh along with the main opposition leaders at the two houses of federal parliament.

Who stands where
1. President
2. Vice President
3. Prime minister
4. Chief justice
5. Speaker of the House of Representative (HoR), Chairman of National Assembly (NA)
6. Former president, deputy PM 
7. Provincial chiefs (governors), federal ministers, opposition leader in HoR, opposition leader in NA, former vice president, former prime minister, former chief justice, deputy speaker of HoR, deputy speaker of NA, chief ministers of provinces, former speaker of Parliament, former chairman of the Constituent Assembly, 
8. State ministers, chairpersons of various committees of the HoR and the NA, vice-chair of the National Planning Commission, Supreme Court justices, Judicial Council members, chiefs of constitutional bodies, attorney general, assistant ministers, member of parliament (HoR & NA), and former deputy PM
9. Members and commissioners of constitutional bodies, chief secretary, chief of army staff, general secretary of federal parliament, Supreme Court chief registrar, chief judges of High Courts, governor of Nepal Rastra Bank, vice-chancellors of universities
10. Speaker of provincial assemblies, ministers of provincial governments, members of the National Planning Commission
11. Government secretaries, special class officers, supreme court registrar, deputy attorney general, deputy auditor general, chief secretary of provincial government, vice chancellor of Nepal Academy, foreign ambassadors in Nepal, secretary general of SAARC, Nepal’s ambassadors
12. Lt General, chief of Nepal Police, chief of Armed Police Force, chief of Department of National Intelligence, UN residential coordinator
13. Deputy Speakers of provincial assemblies, provincial state ministers, chiefs of various committees of provincial assemblies, judges of high court, chief of provincial public service commission, former ministers
14. Assistant ministers of provincial government, members of provincial assemblies
15. Chief of Metropolitan City, former state ministers, former assistant ministers, former lawmakers
16. Major Gen/additional inspector generals of Nepal Police, Armed Police Force and deputy chief investigation officers of Department of National Intelligence
17. Chiefs of District Coordination Committees, members of provincial Public Service Commission
18. Deputy Chiefs of Metropolitan City, government joint-secretaries, director general, first class gazetted officers, secretary of provincial government, district judges
19. Brig Gen/ DIGs of Nepal Police, Armed Police Force and Intelligence Department
20. Chiefs of municipalities, deputy chiefs of municipal cities, consulate general
21. Chairpersons of Rural Municipalities, deputy chiefs of municipalities, Colonel/SSPs of Nepal Police, Armed Police Force and Intelligence Department
22. Under-secretary of Nepal Government, all second class gazetted officers, Lieutenant Colonel; and SPs of Nepal Police, Armed Police Force and Intelligence Department
23. Major; DSPs of Nepal Police, Armed Police Force and Intelligence Department
24. Captain, section officers
25. Lieutenant of Nepal Army, Inspectors of Nepal Police, Armed Police Force and Intelligence Department
26. Section officers of provincial governments, section officers of local governments, all third class gazetted officers
27. Second Lieutenant

Saturday, February 24, 2018

Rivers Of The World's Capital Cities


Afghanistan - Kabul - River Kabul. 
Albania - Tirana - River Tirane. 
Andorra - Andorra La Vella - The Gran Valira.
Argentina - Buenos Aries - River Plate. 
Armenia - Yerevan - The Hrazdan River.  
Australia - Canberra - River Molonglo.
Austria - Vienna - River Danube. 
Autonomous Region of Tibet - Lhasa - The Kyi River.


Barbados - Bridgetown - River Careenage .  
Bangladesh - Dhaka - River Buriganga. 
Belarus - Minsk - The Svislach River.
Belize - Belmopan - The Belize River.
Belgium - Brussels - River Zenne. 
Bhutan - Thimpu - River Wong Chhu. 
Bolivia - La Paz - River Choqueapu. 
Bosnia and Herzogovenia - Sarajevo - River Miljacka. 
Botswana - Gaborone - The Notowahe River.  
Brunei - Bandar Seri Begawan - The Brunei River. 
Bulgaria - Sofia - The River Vladaiska, the River Perlovska and the River Iskar flow along the outskirts of the city.  
Burundi - Bujumbura - Lake Tanganyika.  


Cambodia - Phnom Penh - Located along the River Mekong and Lake Tonle Sap. 
Canada - Ottawa - River Ottawa.  
Central African Republic - Bangui - The Ubangi River. 
Chad - N'djamena - River Chari.
China - Beijing - The Yellow River.
Chile - Santiago - River Mapocho
Colombia - Bogota - River Bogota.
Congo - Brazzaville - River Congo.  
Croatia - Zagreb - River Sava. 
Cuba - Havana - River Almendares. 
Cyprus - Nicosia - River Pedieos.
Czech Republic - Prague - River Vltava.  


Democratic Republic of Congo - Kinshasa - River Congo.  
Denmark - Copenhagen - Located across two islands which are separated by the Oresund Strait.
Dominica - Roseau - River Roseau. 
Dominican Republic - Santa Domingo - River Ozama.  


El Salvador - San Salvador - River Acelhuate. 
Ethiopia - Addis Ababa - River Chankelia.
Ecuador - Quito - River Guayllabamba. 
England - London - River Thames.
Egypt - Cairo - River Nile. 
Estonia - Tallinn - River Pirita.    


Finland - Helsinki - River Vantaa.  
France - Paris - River Seine.  
French Guyana - Cayenne - River Cayenne.  


Gabon - Libreville - River Komo.
Gambia - Banjul - River Gambia.
Georgia - Tblisi - River Kura.
Germany - Berlin - River Spree and River Havel. 
Ghana - Accra - River Odaw.
Greece - Athens - River Kifissos.
Greenland - Nuuk - The Nuup Kangerlua Fjord. 
Guinea Bissau - Bissau - River Geba. 
Guyana - Georgetown - River Demerara. 

Honduras - Tegucigalpa - River Choluteca. 
Hungary - Budapest - River Danube.   


Iceland - Reykjavik - River Ellioaa.
India - Delhi - River Yamuna.
Indonesia - Jakarta - River Ciliwung.
Iran - Tehran - River Hableh Rood.
Iraq - Baghdad - River Tigris.
Isle of Man - Douglas - River Douglas. 
Italy - Rome - River Tiber.  


Jamaica - Kingston - The Hope River. 
Japan - Tokyo - River Sumida.
Jordan - Amman - The Zarqa River.   


Kazakhstan - Astana - River Ishim. 
Kenya - Nairobi - River Nairobi. 
Kyrgyzstan - Bishtek - River Chu. 


Laos - Vientiane - River Mekong.
Latvia - Riga - River Daugava.  
Lebanon - Beirut - The Beirut River.
Leichtenstein - Vaduz - River Rhine.  
Lesotho - Maseru - River Mohokare. 
Liberia - Monrovia - Located at the confluence of the River Mesurado and River Saint Paul. 
Libya - Tripoli - River Abu Ali. 
Lithuania - Vilnius - Located at the confluence of the River Neris and River Vilnia. 
Luxembourg - Luxembourg City - Located at the confluence of the River Alzette and River Pretusse.                                                                        


Macedonia - Skopje - River Vardar.
Madagascar - Antanarivo - River Ikoro.
Malawi - Lilongwe - River Lilongwe.
Malaysia - Kuala Lumpur - River Klamp. 
Mali - Bamako - River Niger. 
Malta - Valletta - The Marsa Creek. 
Mauritius - Port Louis - Black River.
Mexico - Mexico City - River Coatzacoalcos.
Mongolia - Ulan Bator - River Tuul.  
Moldova - Chisinau - River Bic. 
Morocco - Rabat - River Bou Regreg. 
Mozambique - Maputo - River Maputo.
Myanmar - Mandalay - Irriwady River.   


Nepal - Kathmandu - River Bagmati.
Netherlands - Amsterdam - River Amstel. 
New Zealand - Wellington - River Hutt. 
Nicaragua - Managua - River San Juan. 
Niger - Niamey - River Niger.
North Korea - Pyongyang - River Taedong. 
Northern Ireland - Belfast - River Lagan. 
Norway - Oslo - River Akerselva.   


Pakistan - Islamabad - River Kurang. 
Panama - Panama City - River Caloosahatchee. 
Papua New Guinea - Port Moresby - The Brown River.
Paraguay - Asuncion - River Paraguay. 
Peru - Lima - River Rimac.
Philippines - Manilla - Pasig River.
Poland - Warsaw - River Vistula.
Portugal - Lisbon - River Tejo.  
Puerto Rico - San Juan - Located along the banks of the the Condado Lagoon and the San Juan Lagoon.  


Republic of Ireland - Dublin - River Liffey.   
Romania - Bucharest - River Dambovita. 
Russian Federation - Moscow - River Moskva. 
Rwanda - Kigali - River Ruganwa.  


Saudi Arabia - Riyadh - Originally built on the banks of the Riyadh Wadi / Orchard Oasis, which has since dried up. 
Serbia - Belgrade - River Danube.  
Scotland - Edinburgh - Firth of Forth. 
Sierra Leone - Freetown - Freetown River.  
Singapore - Singapore - The Singapore River.
Slovakia - Bratislava - River Danube. 
Slovenia - Ljubljana - River Ljublanica.
Spain - Madrid - River Manzanares.  
Sri Lanka - Colombo - Located along the banks of the the Kalani River and the Beira Lake. 
South Africa - Pretoria - The Apies River.
South Korea - Seoul - The Han River.  
South Sudan - Juba - River White Nile.
Swaziland - Mbabane - The Mbabne River 
Sweden - Stockholm - River Norrstrom.
Switzerland - Bern - River Aare.
Sudan - Khartoum - River Nile.  
Suriname - Paramaribo -  The Suriname River 
Syria - Damascus - River Barada.   

Taiwan - Taipei - River Danshui and River Xindian. 
Tajikstan - Dushanbe - River Varzob. 
Thailand - Bangkok - River Chao Phraya.  
Tunisia - Tunis - Lake of Tunis.
Turkey - Ankara - River Ankara. 
Turkmenistan - Ashgabat - Served by the Karakum Canal which is fed by the River Amu Darya. 


Uganda - Kampala - Lake Victoria. 
Ukraine - Kiev - River Dnieper.
Uruguay - Montivideo - River Plate.
United Arab Emirates - Abu Dhabi - Originally built along the banks of the Al Ain Oasis. 
United Kingdom - London - River Thames  
United States - Washington D.C - River Patomac. 
Uzbekistan - Tashkent - River Chirchik. 


Venezuela - Caracas - River Guaire.
Vietnam - Hanoi - The Red River.  


Wales - Cardiff - River Taff and River Ely.   


Zambia - Lusaka - River Chongwe.
Zimbabwe - Harare - River Limpopo and River Zambesi.  

Nobel Prize Facts

On 27 November 1895, Alfred Nobel signed his last will and testament, giving the largest share of his fortune to a series of prizes in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature and Peace - the Nobel Prizes. In 1968, Sveriges Riksbank (Sweden's central bank) established The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel.

585 Nobel Prizes! Between 1901 and 2017, the Nobel Prizes and the Prize in Economic Sciences were awarded 585 times. 

In the statutes of the Nobel Foundation it says: "A prize amount may be equally divided between two works, each of which is considered to merit a prize. If a work that is being rewarded has been produced by two or three persons, the prize shall be awarded to them jointly. In no case may a prize amount be divided between more than three persons.

923 Nobel Laureates! 896 Laureates and 27 organizations have been awarded the Nobel Prize between 1901 and 2017. Of them, 79 are Laureates in Economic Sciences.

A small number of individuals and organizations have been honored more than once, which means that 892 individuals and 24 unique organizations have received the Nobel Prize in total.

Years without a Prize 

Since the start, in 1901, there are some years when the Nobel Prizes have not been awarded. The total number of times are 49. Most of them during World War I (1914-1918) and II (1939-1945). In the statutes of the Nobel Foundation it says: "If none of the works under consideration is found to be of the importance indicated in the first paragraph, the prize money shall be reserved until the following year. If, even then, the prize cannot be awarded, the amount shall be added to the Foundation's restricted funds.".
Nobel Prize Years without a Prize 
Physics 1916, 1931, 1934, 1940, 1941, 1942
Chemistry 1916, 1917, 1919, 1924, 1933, 1940, 1941, 1942
Medicine 1915, 1916, 1917, 1918, 1921, 1925, 1940, 1941, 1942
Literature 1914, 1918, 1935, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943
Peace 1914, 1915, 1916, 1918, 1923, 1924, 1928, 1932, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943, 1948, 1955, 1956, 1966, 1967, 1972
Economic Sciences -

Nobel Laureates and Fields 

The most common fields for Physics Laureates is particle physics, for Chemistry Laureates it is biochemistry, for Medicine Laureates it is genetics and for Laureates in Economic Sciences it is macroeconomics. Most of the Literature Laureates write prose.

The Youngest Nobel Laureates 

Age     Name                 Category/Year          Date of birth
17      Malala Yousafzai     Peace 2014                 12 July 1997
25      Lawrence Bragg      Physics 1915               31 March 1890
31      Werner Heisenberg  Physics 1932              5 December 1901
31      Tsung-Dao Lee        Physics 1957             24 November 1926
31      Carl D. Anderson     Physics 1936             3 September 1905

The Oldest Nobel Laureates 

Age         Name               Category/Year                   Date of birth
90            Leonid Hurwicz   Economic Sciences 2007   21 August 1917
89            Lloyd Shapley      Economic Sciences 2012   2 June 1923
88            Raymond Davis Jr. Physics 2002                  14 October 1914
88            Doris Lessing         Literature 2007               22 October 1919
87            Yoichiro Nambu     Physics 2008                  18 January 1921

49 Nobel Prizes to Women 

Between 1901 and 2017 the Nobel Prize and Prize in Economic Sciences have been awarded 49 times to women.

Two Nobel Laureates Declined the Prize 

Jean-Paul Sartre, awarded the 1964 Nobel Prize in Literature, declined the prize because he had consistently declined all official honours. 
Le Duc Tho, awarded the 1973 Nobel Peace Prize jointly with US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger. They were awarded the Prize for negotiating the Vietnam peace accord. Le Doc Tho said that he was not in a position to accept the Nobel Peace Prize, citing the situation in Vietnam as his reason. 

Forced to Decline the Nobel Prize! 

Four Nobel Laureates have been forced by authorities to decline the Nobel Prize. 
Adolf Hitler forbade three German Nobel Laureates, Richard Kuhn, Adolf Butenandt and Gerhard Domagk, from accepting the Nobel Prize. 
All of them could later receive the Nobel Prize Diploma and Medal, but not the prize amount. 
Boris Pasternak, the 1958 Nobel Laureate in Literature, initially accepted the Nobel Prize but was later coerced by the authorities of the Soviet Union, his native country, to decline the Nobel Prize. 

Nobel Laureates under Arrest at the Time of the Award 

Three Nobel Laureates were under arrest at the time of the award of the Nobel Prize, all of them Nobel Peace Prize Laureates: 
German pacifist and journalist Carl von Ossietzky 
Burmese politician Aung San Suu Kyi 
Chinese human rights activist Liu Xiaobo 

Multiple Nobel Laureates

Linus Pauling: Nobel Prizes - the 1954 Chemistry and 1962 Nobel Peace Prize. 
J. Bardeen: 1956 Physics 1972 Physics
M. Curie: Physics 1903 Chemistry 1911
L. Pauling: Chemistry 1954 Peace 1962 
F. Sanger:  Chemistry 1958 Chemistry 1980
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC): Peace 1917 Peace 1944 Peace 1963 
United Nations High Commission for Refugee (UNHCR):  Peace 1954 Peace 1981 

Posthumous Nobel Prizes 

From 1974, the Statutes of the Nobel Foundation stipulate that a Prize cannot be awarded posthumously, unless death has occurred after the announcement of the Nobel Prize. 
Before 1974, the Nobel Prize has only been awarded posthumously twice: to Dag Hammarskjöld (Nobel Peace Prize 1961) and Erik Axel Karlfeldt (Nobel Prize in Literature 1931). 
Following the 2011 announcement of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, it was discovered that one of the Medicine Laureates, Ralph Steinman, had passed away three days earlier. The Board of the Nobel Foundation examined the statutes, and an interpretation of the purpose of the rule above led to the conclusion that Ralph Steinman should continue to remain a Nobel Laureate, as the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet had announced the 2011 Nobel Laureates in Physiology or Medicine without knowing of his death. 

"Family Nobel Laureates" 

 As you may notice, the Curies were a very successful 'Nobel Prize family'. Marie Curie herself was awarded two Nobel Prizes. 

Married couples 

Marie Curie and Pierre Curie 
Irène Joliot-Curie and Frédéric Joliot 
Gerty Cori and Carl Cori 
May-Britt Moser and Edvard I. Moser 
Alva Myrdal and Gunnar Myrdal 

Mother & daughter 

Marie Curie and Irène Joliot-Curie 

Father & daughter 

Pierre Curie and  Irène Joliot-Curie 

Father & son 

William Bragg and Lawrence Bragg 
Niels Bohr and Aage N. Bohr
Hans von and Euler-Chelpin Ulf von 
Euler Arthur Kornberg and Roger D. Kornberg 
Manne Siegbahn and Kai M. Siegbahn 
J. J. Thomson and George Paget Thomson 


Jan Tinbergen and Nikolaas Tinbergen 

The Nobel Prize Insignias 

At the Nobel Prize Award Ceremonies on 10 December the Nobel Laureates receive three things: a Nobel Diploma, a Nobel Medal and a document confirming the Nobel Prize amount. 
Each Nobel Diploma is a unique work of art, created by foremost Swedish and Norwegian artists and calligraphers. 
The Nobel Medals are handmade with careful precision and in 18 carat recycled gold. The Nobel Medals in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine and Literature are identical on the face: it shows the image of Alfred Nobel and the years of his birth and death (1833-1896). 
Nobel's portrait also appears on the Nobel Peace Prize Medal and the Medal for the Prize in Economic Sciences, but with a slightly different design. 
The image on the reverse varies according to the institution awarding the prize. 

The Nobel Diplomas 

Each Nobel Diploma is a unique work of art, created by foremost Swedish and Norwegian artists and calligraphers. The Nobel Prize Amount Alfred Nobel left most of his estate, more than SEK 31 million (today approximately SEK 1,702 million) to be converted into a fund and invested in "safe securities." The income from the investments was to be "distributed annually in the form of prizes to those who during the preceding year have conferred the greatest benefit to mankind." The Nobel Prize amount for 2017 is set at Swedish kronor (SEK) 9.0 million per full Nobel Prize. 

* Why are the individuals and organisations awarded a Nobel Prize called Nobel Laureates?
The word "Laureate" refers to being signified by the laurel wreath. In Greek mythology, the god Apollo is represented wearing a laurel wreath on his head. A laurel wreath is a circular crown made of branches and leaves of the bay laurel (in Latin: Laurus nobilis). In Ancient Greece, laurel wreaths were awarded to victors as a sign of honour - both in athletic competitions and in poetic meets.

Number of players in different games

The below table shows the list of sports/games with number of players need to play the game/sport with actual game/sport rules and instructions.
1 or 2 players
9 players
5 players
2 players
1 or 2 players
11 players
1 player
11 players
Rugby Football
15 players
7 players
11 players
4 players
1 or 2 players
6 players
Water polo
7 players

Thursday, February 22, 2018

14th plan (Fiscal year 2073/74 - 2075/76) Nepal

The National Planning Commission (NPC) is the apex advisory body of the Government of Nepal for formulating a national vision, periodic plans and policies for development. It is headed by the Right Honorable Prime Minister. The NPC assesses resource needs, identifies sources of funding, and allocates budget for socio-economic development. It serves as a central agency for monitoring and evaluating development plans, policies and programs. The NPC also serves as an intellectual hub for the exchange of new development ideas and proposals from scholars, private sector, civil society, and development partners.

Read/Download 14th Plan of Nepal here. 

At present, the NPC has one full-time Vice-Chairman, eight members, and one Member-Secretary who also heads a fully staffed secretariat.The Chief-Secretary and the Finance Secretary are ex-officio members of the Commission. The national statistical organization of Nepal, the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), functions as a specialized entity of the NPC Secretariat, headed by a Director-General.

The Secretariat consists of six functional Divisions each headed by a Joint-Secretary: i) Economic Management; ii) Social Development; iii) Infrastructure Development; iv) Agriculture and Rural Development; v) Monitoring and Evaluation; and vi) Administration. Each Division is further divided into Sections headed by an Under-Secretary.

Historical Background

The Planning Commission was first created in Nepal in 1956. It was soon renamed in accordance with the Yojana Mandal Act of 1957. Following the introduction of the partyless Panchayat system in 1961, the National Planning Council was formed under the then king. In 1963, the Council was dissolved and a new planning body, with an identical name, was constituted under the Chairman of the Council of Ministers. All the Ministers became ex-officio members of the Council; and the Ministry of Economic Affairs was renamed the Ministry of Economic Planning.
In 1968, all tasks related to development budget and foreign aid hitherto carried out by the Ministry of Economic Planning were assigned to the Ministry of Finance. The National Planning Council then morphed into the National Planning Commission (NPC) under the Chairmanship of the Prime Minister. A 1972 study on the functions and responsibilities of the central planning agency resulted in the reconstitution of the NPC.
After the historic restoration of multiparty democracy in 1990, the newly elected government reconstituted the NPC again with the Prime Minister as Chair, a full-time Vice-Chairman, five Members, and a Member-Secretary. The current organization and functions of the NPC draw on the Executive Order issued by the cabinet in 2010